How We Meet The Standards

We try to keep up-to-date on the state standards to best meet your classroom needs.

4th Grade

Science

GRADE BAND THEME: INTERCONNECTIONS WITHIN SYSTEMS

This theme focuses on helping students recognize the components of various systems and then investigate dynamic and sustainable relationships within systems using scientific inquiry.

 SCIENCE INQUIRY AND APPLICATION

During the years of PreK-4, all students must become proficient in the use of the following scientific processes, with appropriate laboratory safety techniques, to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas:

  • Observe and ask questions about the natural environment;
  • Plan and conduct simple investigations;
  • Employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses;
  • Use appropriate mathematics with data to construct reasonable explanations;
  • Communicate about observations, investigations and explanations; and
  • Review and ask questions about the observations and explanations of others.

STRANDS

Strand Connections: Heat and electrical energy are forms of energy that can be transferred from one location to another. Matter has properties that allow the transfer of heat and electrical energy. Heating and cooling affect the weathering of Earth’s surface and Earth’s past environments. The processes that shape Earth’s surface and the fossil evidence found can help decode Earth’s history.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (ESS)

Topic: Earth’s Surface

This topic focuses on the variety of processes that

shape and reshape Earth’s surface.

  • Earth’s surface has specific characteristics and landforms that can be identified.
  • The surface of Earth changes due to weathering.
  • The surface of Earth changes due to erosion and deposition.

LIFE SCIENCE (LS)

Topic: Earth’s Living History

This topic focuses on using fossil evidence and living organisms to observe that suitable habitats depend upon a combination of biotic and abiotic factors.

  • Changes in an organism’s environment are sometimes beneficial to its survival and sometimes harmful.
  • Fossils can be compared to one another and to present day organisms according to their similarities and differences.

Social Studies

THEME: OHIO IN THE UNITED STATES

The fourth-grade year focuses on the early development of Ohio and the United States. Students learn about the history, geography, government and economy of their state and nation. Foundations of U.S. history are laid as students study prehistoric Ohio cultures, early American life, the U.S. Constitution, and the development and growth of Ohio and the United States. Students begin to understand how ideas and events from the past have shaped Ohio and the United States today.

HISTORY STRAND

HISTORICAL THINKING AND SKILLS

  1. The order of significant events in Ohio and the United States can be shown on a timeline.

HERITAGE

  1. Various groups of people have lived in Ohio over time including prehistoric and historic American Indians, migrating settlers and immigrants. Interactions among these groups have resulted in both cooperation and conflict.

GEOGRAPHY STRAND

SPATIAL THINKING AND SKILLS

  1. A map scale and cardinal and intermediate directions can be used to describe the

relative location of physical and human characteristics of Ohio and the United States.

PLACES AND REGIONS

  1. The regions of the United States known as the North, South and West

developed in the early 1800s largely based on their physical environments and economies.

HUMAN SYSTEMS

  1. People have modified the environment since prehistoric times. There are both positive and negative consequences for modifying the environment in Ohio and the United States.
  2. The population of the United States has changed over time, becoming more diverse (e.g., racial, ethnic, linguistic, religious). Ohio’s population has become increasingly reflective of the cultural diversity of the United States.

ECONOMICS STRAND

ECONOMIC DECISION MAKING AND SKILLS

  1. Tables and charts help people to understand information and issues. Tables organize information in columns and rows. Charts organize information in a variety of visual formats (pictures, diagrams, graphs).

FINANCIAL LITERACY

  1. Saving a portion of income contributes to an individual‘s financial well-being. Individuals can reduce spending to save more of their income.

Math

MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES

  1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
  3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
  4. Model with mathematics.
  5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
  6. Attend to precision.
  7. Look for and make use of structure.
  8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

MEASUREMENT AND DATA 4.MD

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.

  1. Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two- column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), …
 5Th Grade

 Science

 GRADE BAND THEME: INTERCONNECTIONS WITHIN SYSTEMS

This theme focuses on helping students recognize the components of various systems and then investigate dynamic and sustainable relationships within systems using scientific inquiry.

 SCIENCE INQUIRY AND APPLICATION

During the years of grades 5-8, all students must use the following scientific processes, with appropriate laboratory safety techniques, to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas:

  • Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations;
  • Design and conduct a scientific investigation;
  • Use appropriate mathematics, tools and techniques to gather data and information;
  • Analyze and interpret data;
  • Develop descriptions, models, explanations and predictions;
  • Think critically and logically to connect evidence and explanations;
  • Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions; and
  • Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

 STRANDS

Strand Connections: Cycles on Earth, such as those occurring in ecosystems, in the solar system, and in the movement of light and sound result in describable patterns.

Speed is a measurement of movement. Change in speed is related to force and mass. The transfer of energy drives changes in systems, including ecosystems and physical systems.

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (ESS)

Topic: Cycles and Patterns in the Solar System

This topic focuses on the characteristics, cycles and patterns in the solar system and within the universe.

  • The solar system includes the sun and all celestial bodies that orbit the sun. Each planet in the solar system has unique characteristics.
  • The sun is one of many stars that exist in the universe.
  • Most of the cycles and patterns of motion between the Earth and sun are predictable.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PS)

Topic: Light, Sound and Motion

This topic focuses on the forces that affect motion. This includes the relationship between the change in speed of an object, the amount of force applied and the mass* of the object. Light and sound are explored as forms of energy that move in predictable ways, depending on the matter through which they move.

  • The amount of change in movement of an object is based on the mass* of the object and the amount of force exerted.
  • Light and sound are forms of energy that behave in predicable ways.

LIFE SCIENCE (LS)

Topic: Interactions within Ecosystems

This topic focuses on foundational knowledge of the structures and functions of ecosystems.

  • Organisms perform a variety of roles in an ecosystem.
  • All of the processes that take place within organisms require energy.

Social Studies

THEME: REGIONS AND PEOPLE OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE

In grade five, students study the Western Hemisphere (North and South America), its geographic features, early history, cultural development and economic change. Students learn about the early inhabitants of the Americas and the impact of European exploration and colonization. The geographic focus includes the study of contemporary regional characteristics, the movement of people, products and ideas, and cultural diversity. Students develop their understanding of the relationship between markets and available resources.

HISTORY STRAND

HISTORICAL THINKING AND SKILLS

  1. Multiple-tier timelines can be used to show relationships among events and places.

EARLY CIVILIZATIONS

  1. Early Indian civilizations (Maya, Inca, Aztec, Mississippian) existed in the

Western Hemisphere prior to the arrival of Europeans. These civilizations had

developed unique governments, social structures, religions, technologies, and

agricultural practices and products.

HERITAGE

  1. European exploration and colonization had lasting effects, which can be used to

understand the Western Hemisphere today.

GEOGRAPHY STRAND

 SPATIAL THINKING AND SKILLS

  1. Globes and other geographic tools can be used to gather, process and report

information about people, places and environments. Cartographers decide which information to include in maps.

PLACES AND REGIONS

  1. Regions can be determined using various criteria (e.g., landform, climate, population, cultural or economic).

HUMAN SYSTEMS

  1. Variations among physical environments within the Western Hemisphere influence human activities. Human activities also alter the physical environment.
  2. American Indians developed unique cultures with many different ways of life. American Indian tribes and nations can be classified into cultural groups based on geographic and cultural similarities.
  3. The Western Hemisphere is culturally diverse due to American Indian, European, Asian and African influences and interactions, as evidenced by artistic expression, language, religion and food.

ECONOMIC STRAND

ECONOMIC DECISION MAKING AND SKILLS

  1. The choices people make have both present and future consequences.

SCARCITY

  1. The availability of productive resources (i.e., human resources, capital goods and natural resources) promotes specialization that leads to trade.

MARKETS

  1. Regions and countries become interdependent when they specialize in what they produce best and then trade with other regions to increase the amount and variety of goods and services available.

Math

MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES

  1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
  3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
  4. Model with mathematics.
  5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
  6. Attend to precision.
  7. Look for and make use of structure.
  8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

MEASUREMENT AND DATA 5.MD

Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.

  1. Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems.
6Th Grade

Science

INTRODUCTION TO CONTENT STATEMENTS

GRADE BAND THEME: ORDER AND ORGANIZATION

This theme focuses on helping students use scientific inquiry to discover patterns, trends, structures and relationships that may be described by simple principles. These

principles are related to the properties or interactions within and between systems.

SCIENCE INQUIRY AND APPLICATION

During the years of grades 5-8, all students must use the following scientific processes, with appropriate laboratory safety techniques, to construct their knowledge and

understanding in all science content areas:

  • Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations;
  • Design and conduct a scientific investigation;
  • Use appropriate mathematics, tools and techniques to gather data and information;
  • Analyze and interpret data;
  • Develop descriptions, models, explanations and predictions;
  • Think critically and logically to connect evidence and explanations;
  • Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions; and
  • Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

STRANDS

Strand Connections: All matter is made of small particles called atoms. The properties of matter are based on the order and organization of atoms and molecules. Cells,

minerals, rocks and soil are all examples of matter.

 EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (ESS)

Topic: Rocks, Minerals and Soil

This topic focuses on the study of rocks, minerals

and soil, which make up the lithosphere. Classifying

and identifying different types of rocks, minerals and

soil can decode the past environment in which they

formed.

  • Minerals have specific, quantifiable properties.
  • Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks have unique characteristics that can be used for identification and/or classification.
  • Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks form in different ways.
  • Soil is unconsolidated material that contains nutrient matter and weathered rock.
  • Rocks, minerals and soils have common and practical uses.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PS)

Topic: Matter and Motion

This topic focuses on the study of foundational concepts of the particulate nature of matter, linear motion, and kinetic and potential energy.

  • All matter is made up of small particles called atoms.
  • Changes of state are explained by a model of matter composed of atoms and/or molecules that are in motion.
  • There are two categories of energy: kinetic and potential.
  • An object’s motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it is moving.

 LIFE SCIENCE (LS)

Topic: Cellular to Multicellular

This topic focuses on the study of the basics of Modern Cell Theory. All organisms are composed of cells, which are the fundamental unit of life. Cells carry on the many processes that sustain life. All cells come from pre-existing cells.

  • Cells are the fundamental unit of life.
  • All cells come from pre-existing cells.
  • Cells carry on specific functions that sustain life.
  • Living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function.

Social Studies

THEME: REGIONS AND PEOPLE OF THE EASTERN HEMISPHERE

In grade six, students study the Eastern Hemisphere (Africa, Asia, Australia and Europe), its geographic features, early history, cultural development and economic change. Students learn about the development of river civilizations in Africa and Asia, including their governments, cultures and economic systems. The geographic focus includes the study of contemporary regional characteristics, the movement of people, products and ideas, and cultural diversity. Students develop their understanding of the role of consumers and the interaction of markets, resources and competition.

 HISTORY STRAND

 HISTORICAL THINKING AND SKILLS

  1. Events can be arranged in order of occurrence using the conventions of B.C. and A.D. or B.C.E. and C.E.

 GEOGRAPHY STRAND

 SPATIAL THINKING AND SKILLS

  1. Globes and other geographic tools can be used to gather, process and report information about people, places and environments. Cartographers decide which information to include and how it is displayed.

 PLACES AND REGIONS

  1. Regions can be determined, classified and compared using various criteria (e.g., landform, climate, population, cultural, or economic).

 HUMAN SYSTEMS

  1. Variations among physical environments within the Eastern Hemisphere influence human activities. Human activities also alter the physical environment.
  2. Modern cultural practices and products show the influence of tradition and diffusion, including the impact of major world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism).

 ECONOMICS STRAND

 ECONOMIC DECISION MAKING AND SKILLS

  1. The choices people make have both present and future consequences. The evaluation of choices is relative and may differ across individuals and societies.

Math

MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES

  1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
  3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
  4. Model with mathematics.
  5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
  6. Attend to precision.
  7. Look for and make use of structure.
  8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

RATIOS AND PROPORTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS 6.RP

Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems.

  1. Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, “The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak.” “For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes.”
  2. Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b ≠ 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. For example, “This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so there is ¾ cup of flour for each cup of sugar.” “We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger.”1
  3. Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.
  4. Make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole- number measurements, find missing values in the tables, and plot the pairs of values on the coordinate plane. Use tables to compare ratios.
  5. Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed. For example, if it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what rate were lawns being mowed?
  6. Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent.
  7. Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities.

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 6.SP

Develop understanding of statistical variability.

  1. Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages.
 7th Grade

Science

GRADE BAND THEME: ORDER AND ORGANIZATION

This theme focuses on helping students use scientific inquiry to discover patterns, trends, structures and relationships that may be described by simple principles. These principles are related to the properties or interactions within and between systems.

SCIENCE INQUIRY AND APPLICATION

  • During the years of grades 5-8, all students must use the following scientific processes, with appropriate laboratory safety techniques, to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas:
  • Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations;
  • Design and conduct a scientific investigation;
  • Use appropriate mathematics, tools and techniques to gather data and information;
  • Analyze and interpret data;
  • Develop descriptions, models, explanations and predictions;
  • Think critically and logically to connect evidence and explanations;
  • Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions; and
  • Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

 STRANDS

Strand Connections: Systems can exchange energy and/or matter when interactions occur within systems and between systems. Systems cycle matter and energy in observable and predictable patterns.

 EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (ESS)

Topic: Cycles and Patterns of Earth and the Moon

This topic focuses on Earth’s hydrologic cycle, patterns that exist in atmospheric and oceanic currents, the relationship between thermal energy and the currents, and the relative position and movement of the Earth, sun and moon.

  • The hydrologic cycle illustrates the changing states of water as it moves through the lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
  • Thermal-energy transfers in the ocean and the atmosphere contribute to the formation of currents, which influence global climate patterns.
  • The atmosphere has different properties at different elevations and contains a mixture of gases that cycle through the lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and

atmosphere.

  • The relative patterns of motion and positions of the Earth, moon and sun cause solar and lunar eclipses, tides and phases of the moon.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PS)

Topic: Conservation of Mass and Energy

This topic focuses on the empirical evidence for the arrangements of atoms on the Periodic Table of Elements, conservation of mass and energy, transformation and transfer of energy.

  • The properties of matter are determined by the arrangement of atoms.
  • Energy can be transformed or transferred but is never lost.
  • Energy can be transferred through a variety of ways.

LIFE SCIENCE (LS)

Topic: Cycles of Matter and Flow of Energy

This topic focuses on the impact of matter and energy transfer within the biotic component of ecosystems.

  • Matter is transferred continuously between one organism to another and between organisms and their physical environments.
  • In any particular biome, the number, growth and survival of organisms and populations depend on biotic and abiotic factors.

Social Studies

THEME: WORLD STUDIES FROM 750 B.C. TO 1600 A.D.: ANCIENT GREECE TO THE FIRST GLOBAL AGE

The seventh-grade year is an integrated study of world history, beginning with ancient Greece and continuing through global exploration. All four social studies strands are used to illustrate how historic events are shaped by geographic, social, cultural, economic and political factors. Students develop their understanding of how ideas and events from the past have shaped the world today.

GEOGRAPHY STRAND

 SPATIAL THINKING SKILLS

  1. Maps and other geographic representations can be used to trace the development of human settlement over time.

HUMAN SYSTEMS

  1. Geographic factors promote or impede the movement of people, products and ideas.
  2. Improvements in transportation, communication and technology have facilitated cultural diffusion among peoples around the world.

GOVERNMENT STRAND

CIVIC PARTICIPATION AND SKILLS

  1. The ability to understand individual and group perspectives is essential to analyzing historic and contemporary issues.

ECONOMICS STRAND

ECONOMIC DECISION MAKING AND SKILLS

  1. Individuals, governments and businesses must analyze costs and benefits when making economic decisions. A cost- benefit analysis consists of determining the potential costs and benefits of an action and then balancing the costs against the benefits.

Math

MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES

  1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
  3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
  4. Model with mathematics.
  5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
  6. Attend to precision.
  7. Look for and make use of structure.
  8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
8th Grade

Science

GRADE BAND THEME: ORDER AND ORGANIZATION

This theme focuses on helping students use scientific inquiry to discover patterns, trends, structures and relationships that may be described by simple principles. These principles are related to the properties or interactions within and between systems.

 SCIENCE INQUIRY AND APPLICATION

During the years of grades 5-8, all students must use the following scientific processes, with appropriate laboratory safety techniques, to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas:

  • Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations;
  • Design and conduct a scientific investigation;
  • Use appropriate mathematics, tools and techniques to gather data and information;
  • Analyze and interpret data;
  • Develop descriptions, models, explanations and predictions;
  • Think critically and logically to connect evidence and explanations;
  • Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions; and
  • Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

 STRANDS

Strand Connections: Systems can be described and understood by analysis of the interaction of their components. Energy, forces and motion combine to change the

physical features of the Earth. The changes of the physical Earth and the species that have lived on Earth are found in the rock record. For species to continue, reproduction must be successful.

 EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (ESS)

Topic: Physical Earth

This topic focuses on the physical features of Earth and how they formed. This includes the interior of Earth, the rock record, plate tectonics and landforms.

  • The composition and properties of Earth’s interior are identified by the behavior of seismic waves.
  • Earth’s crust consists of major and minor tectonic plates that move relative to each other.
  • A combination of constructive and destructive geologic processes formed Earth’s surface.
  • Evidence of the dynamic changes of Earth’s surface through time is found in the geologic record.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PS)

Topic: Forces and Motion

This topic focuses on forces and motion within, on and around the Earth and within the universe.

  • Forces between objects act when the objects are in direct contact or when they are not touching.
  • Forces have magnitude and direction.
  • There are different types of potential energy.

 LIFE SCIENCE (LS)

Topic: Species and Reproduction

This topic focuses on continuation of the species.

  • Diversity of species occurs through gradual processes over many generations. Fossil records provide evidence that changes have occurred in number and types of species.
  • Reproduction is necessary for the continuation of every species.
  • The characteristics of an organism are a result of inherited traits received from parent(s).

Social Studies

THEME: U.S. STUDIES FROM 1492 TO 1877: EXPLORATION THROUGH RECONSTRUCTION

The historical focus continues in the eighth grade with the study of European exploration and the early years of the United States. This study incorporates all four social studies strands into a chronologic view of the development of the United States. Students examine how historic events are shaped by geographic, social, cultural, economic and political factors.

HISTORY STRAND

A NEW NATION

  1. North America, originally inhabited by American Indians, was explored and colonized by Europeans for economic and religious reasons.

EXPANSION

  1. Westward expansion contributed to economic and industrial development, debates over sectional issues, war with Mexico and the displacement of American Indians.

GEOGRAPHY STRAND

SPATIAL THINKING AND SKILLS

  1. Modern and historical maps and other geographic tools are used to analyze how historic events are shaped by geography.

HUMAN SYSTEMS

  1. The availability of natural resources contributed to the geographic and economic expansion of the United States, sometimes resulting in unintended environmental consequences.
  2. The movement of people, products and ideas resulted in new patterns of settlement and land use that influenced the political and economic development of the United States.

GOVERNMENT STRAND

CIVIC PARTICIPATION AND SKILLS

  1. Participation in social and civic groups can lead to the attainment of individual and public goals.

ECONOMICS STRAND

ECONOMIC DECISION MAKING AND SKILLS

  1. Choices made by individuals, businesses and governments have both present and future consequences.

Math

MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES

  1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
  3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
  4. Model with mathematics.
  5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
  6. Attend to precision.
  7. Look for and make use of structure.
  8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.